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The machining How to make the right decisions
Author:     Date:2012-1-20 14:08:10    View:2353
The increasingly fierce market competition, the auto manufacturers have to seriously consider their future development. Their overall life cycle cost requirements and hope to help make the right decisions.
For automotive powertrain manufacturing enterprises, the production of rational planning is very important. Because the right choice can further enhance the use of value of production systems, improve production efficiency and production process rationalization, and save a lot of expenses for the enterprise.
The engine used in the production of automated production systems, the overall life cycle cost calculation is not a simple matter. First, enterprises should invest a lot of money in advance to purchase production equipment. Then, you need to consider in the latter part of the process of using this set of castings can be processed into finished production system (cylinder) takes the number of operating costs and maintenance costs? Make a better analogy, a 10-year calculation period, how much operating costs in this system produces 4 million this cylinder?
Our answer is: that the spending will be between 1.10 to $ 160,000,000. Not only the difference of $ 5000 million powertrain manufacturing enterprises selected production equipment models have a close relationship, but modified in the next 10 years, also has a close relationship with the parts (cylinder). In order to meet these design changes, the powertrain manufacturing company production systems corresponding transformation. In addition, the selection of equipment models for daily consumption of cutting tools, spare parts such as spindle, public facilities and services operations and maintenance costs and other factors will also have a great impact.
Agile processing unit consisting of parallel processing, program-controlled machining center grouping
Development of manufacturing technology
The past, can produce thousands of pieces of powertrain parts only practicable and higher cost-effective way is to build the plane of the order process production line. Processing contents of the process assigned to a separate station order, linking by a rigid conveyor belt. Rough material from one end of the production line, finished (the cylinder block or cylinder head) from the other end of the line, and then enter the assembly process.
This production system is suitable for less demanding on the production line of flexible, small design changes in a series of parts production, and for large parts of the design changes you need to design a new station. The transformation of plane production line order process cost is high, the powertrain manufacturing company requires a lot of time and money.
With the development of manufacturing technology, agile manufacturing systems and hybrid production systems to bring to production changes.
Agile manufacturing system is equipped with a robot, CNC machine tools and machine automation equipment to form, the use of parallel processing technology, can achieve a continuous production, a machine failure does not lead to the entire production line downtime. In addition, the parallel processing of production systems with good flexibility, it is easy to further expansion of production needs to be done.
For mass production, the lower acquisition cost of the traditional plane production line. If the production of parts expected little change in the plane production line will be the best choice. With the development of manufacturing technology, relative to previous generations of automated production lines, the cost of renovation of the production line has been reduced.
Hybrid production system is a combination of the first two modes of production, both the characteristics of plane production lines and flexible manufacturing cell.
How to choose
In the choice of production systems, the overall life cycle cost can be used as an important basis for manufacturing enterprises. MAG Powertrain equipment development worksheet to create an overall life cycle cost calculation model, changes in the product is divided into three categories: changes less, medium change, change. Additional holes on the engine, change less just be reconfigured to adapt them to new models. According to the counter sinking, drilling, reaming and tapping operations transform plane production line to add multi-axis machining head, increasing the tool to adapt to the changes of product design. In this regard, the agile manufacturing system is only a modification of the workpiece program, replace the tool to meet these changes.
The engine block is designed to change an instance of the medium. Its new features will produce some impact on the need to increase the amount of processing necessary. In this case, the plane production line needs to add multi-axis machining head and two to three new stations need to change the fixture. Install new equipment and the transformation of the old equipment will result in the shutdown of production lines, need to adjust the inventory of the finished product before replacement.
People to consider the selection of the production program to deal with medium changes in the product, the agile manufacturing system flexibility has been fully embodied. Agile manufacturing system easy to extend, installation and commissioning of the equipment and will not affect the normal work of the other CNC machine tools online.
For a larger program of product changes, if you are using a plane production line, then we must consider the design and manufacture of several new processing station to replace the existing station. This will surely involve more than one machine, there are a considerable number of new long processing head, fixture, and a large number of updated mechanical, electrical, hydraulic systems and PLC design, tool diagrams, process table, the related instructions. Agile manufacturing system, we may only need to add two new CNC machine tools. In addition, due to changes in the production process, the need to change the processing procedures of the CNC machine tools.
In the 10 to 20 years in the life cycle of an engine production line, product 2 times larger change in the 4 to 5 medium change and 10 to 20 times smaller change is rare. It would appear that the agile manufacturing system is the best choice of powertrain manufacturing enterprises. However, when large output, the initial investment cost of the plane production line relative to the agile manufacturing system lower. When production reached 600 000 per year, the cost of plane production line than agile manufacturing systems cost 40% lower, the latter part of the operation and maintenance costs are also lower.
Of plane production line is highly standardized processing system, such systems are very suitable for the mass production of parts. If the expected changes in the production of parts with little or design changes are infrequent, and its investment cost is relatively low. The various processes can be divided into several stations, arranged in order in a production line, linking by a rigid delivery system.
However, in many applications, the high cost it takes to reinstall the transformation of plane production line may offset the advantage of lower initial investment and operation and running costs. Because smaller changes may need to spend millions of dollars, the cost of medium change takes about 1 $ 0 million, while the larger changes in the cost of often may exceed $ 2000 million.
In the future, the frequency of product changes and the possibility will be further enhanced. Compared with the cylinder, this series of changes will be reflected more in the cylinder head products, so that the powertrain manufacturing companies prefer to adopt the agile manufacturing system to produce cylinder head.
In addition, the production system comparison also includes machine tool utilization and other factors predict these operating variables to determine the life-cycle costs of the production system as a whole is an important part. We can according to the manufacturers labor rates to calculate the labor costs of these two modes of production. Run agile manufacturing system operators and maintenance personnel, and their number is equivalent to plane production line personnel required 2 to 3 times. In fact, no matter what kind of mode of production, the cost of utilities (electricity and gas) as well as the coolant and fuel consumption can be calculated.
Assessment of the costs of equipment maintenance and spare parts are also included. Replacement of the spindle, including the inventory of spare parts, accounting for a large proportion. Typically, parallel processing technology used in CNC machine tools has more spindle. If multiplied by the required number of spindle system is expected to replace the parts number, multiplied by the $ 50,000 purchase price of each spindle, the amount received is very impressive in the entire planned system life cycle. Furthermore, the average time between failures (MTBF) and identify the problem and exclude variable labor technical level of fault required, also need to enter a value into automatic production line maintenance projects to be calculated.
In addition, there are a number of factors the life cycle cost of the production system also has a great impact. Consumption of the tool must be considered. With the continuous improvement of machine tool spindle speed and feed rate, tool consumption increases. In the traditional processing methods, coolant costs are around 15% of operating costs. Due to the extraction system is constantly updated, the MQL becomes more feasible. The key is to redesign the base of the machine, using gravity to help rule out the chip, rather than a flush method to rule out the chip. In fact, once this particular design of the machine base, reduce the number of required coolant than wet processing.
Studies have shown that the overall life cycle costs of the production system, the mixed mode of production using flexible processing unit with a combination of plane production line more desirable in many applications. Plane for roughing and finishing of the characteristics of stability, numerical control machine tools for the design features easy to change the station.
Now, powertrain manufacturing companies have a new option - plane type machining centers. Plane processing center is the processing center and the plane of the combination of a new process of the workpiece, the machine converted into a separate processing unit. Plane machining center more simple, reliable, and the spindle is less than the plane, the tool change time is short, high processing efficiency. In addition, the initial investment and lower operating cycle.
Conclusion
According to a recent study, the overall life cycle cost of these three modes of production were compared. Production period of 20 years, products and tools for transformation into a larger change, medium change, small change of 10 times, the system's overall life cycle costs are shown in Table. The overall system life cycle cost is determined by the production: the lowest overall life cycle cost when annual output of 30 to 400 000, agile manufacturing system; when annual output of 600,000, the lowest plane production line, the overall life cycle costs. The same investment in equipment and production scale of 10 years (instead of 20 years) production period is calculated, despite lower yields, but still on the choice of production system recommended by the same figures.
Life Cycle Cost Analysis program of the above three production systems are an advantage. If the yield is low, agile manufacturing systems an advantage; If the output of the middle level, the use of hybrid production systems or agile manufacturing system is the most ideal. When changes in product development to meet the minimum level of forecast, plane production line in mass production scale is an advantage. The face of mass production, agile manufacturing system, the initial higher investment, but its flexibility and ease of scalability not only to meet the market needs, while to adapt to future developments. The lower the initial cost of the plane production line, if the product during a certain period of time does not change much, choose this production are feasible.
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